Element, Compound, and Mixture

Basic Concept


Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space

Example: All living things, table, chair, stone, water, oxygen, computer, car, etc

Non-matter includes light, heat, and sound





A. Element

An element is a substance that cannot be further broken down by any chemical reaction. Elements of the periodic table are grouped as metals, metalloids or semimetals, and nonmetals.



1. Copper (Cu) → use to electrical conductor

2. Calcium (Ca) → calcium ions needed to form bones and teeth

3. Aluminium (Al) → making of cooking pots and pans

4. Gold (Au) → use for jewelry

5. Iron (fe) → use for consruction of buildings and bridges

6. Lead (Pb) → use for water pipes

7. Magnesium (Mg) → use in fireworks

8. Platinum (Pt) → use for jewelry

9. Potassium (K) → use in agricultural fertilizers

10. Silver (Ag) → use for jewelry

11. Tin (Sn) → use for making containers

12. Zinc (Zn) → use in dry cells and roofing for houses

13. Mercury (Hg) → use in thermometers



1. Boron (B) → additive in fiberglass for insulation and structural materials

2. Silicon (Si) → use for making computer chips

3. Germanium (Ge) → use for making transistors

4. Arsenic (As)

5. Antimony (Sb)

6. Tellurium (Te)

7. Polonium (Po)

Non Metals


1. Chlorine (Cl) → use for killing germs in water supply

2. Argon (Ar) → use for lighting bulbs

3. Bromine (Br) → use in photography

4. Helium (He) → use to filling ballons

5. Carbon (C) → diamond and graphite use for jewelry

6. Hydrogen (H) → use for fuel

7. Iodine (I) → use for antiseptic

8. Neon (Ne) → used in electric signs and fluorescent lamps

9. Nitrogen (N) → liquid nitrogen use to refrigeration coolant

10. Oxygen (O) → gas for breathing

11. Phosphorus (P) → use in making safety matches

12. Sulphur (S) → manufacture of sulphuric acid

The Difference Between Metals and Non-metals



    • high melting point
    • most solid at room temperature, except mercury
    • metals can be bent and stretched (Malleable and ductile)
    • good conductors of electricity
    • good heat conductors
    • metals are shiny in appearance
    • metals are strong and hard



    • low melting point
    • may be solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature
    • non-metals are usually brittle and break easily when bent or stretched
    • usually do not conduct electricity except graphite
    • usually poor heat conductors
    • non-metals are usually dull in appearance except diamond
    • non-metals are usually weak and soft
B. Compound

A compound contains two or more elements chemically joined together


1. Water (H2O)

2. Carbon dioxide (CO2)

3. Acetic acid (CH3COOH)

4. Sulphuric acid (H2SO4)

5. Hydrochloric acid (HCl)

6. Ethanol (C2H5OH)

7. Ammonia (NH3)

8. Natrium chloride (NaCl)

C. Mixture

A mixture contains two or more different substances that are not chemically joined together. The differences substances in a mixture can be elements and/or compounds

A. Homogeneous Mixture

A homogeneous mixture is a mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout the mixture

All solutions would be considered homogeneous


    • Sugar solution
    • Salt solution
    • Tea solution
    • Coffee solution
    • Vinegar
    • Alcohol 70%
    • Steel
    • Brass
    • Air
    • Wine

B. Heterogeneous Mixture

(1) Colloids


    • Milk
    • Smoke
    • Cheese butter
    • Hair cream
    • Cloud
    • Ink


(2) Suspensions


    • Chalk dissolved in water
    • Sand dissolved in water
    • Sand and water
    • Oil and water
    • Muddy water
    • Italian salad dressing


(Next Lesson) Question 01
Kembali ke Element, Compound, and Mixture