Element, Compound, and Mixture

Element, Compound and Mixture

 

Element, Compound and Mixture

MATTER

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space

Example: All living things, table, chair, stone, water, oxygen, computer, car, etc

Non-matter includes light, heat, and sound

 

 

 

 

A. Element

An element is a substance that cannot be further broken down by any chemical reaction. Elements of the periodic table are grouped as metals, metalloids or semimetals, and nonmetals.

Metals

Example:

1. Copper (Cu) → use to electrical conductor

2. Calcium (Ca) → calcium ions needed to form bones and teeth

3. Aluminium (Al) → making of cooking pots and pans

4. Gold (Au) → use for jewelry

5. Iron (fe) → use for consruction of buildings and bridges

6. Lead (Pb) → use for water pipes

7. Magnesium (Mg) → use in fireworks

8. Platinum (Pt) → use for jewelry

9. Potassium (K) → use in agricultural fertilizers

10. Silver (Ag) → use for jewelry

11. Tin (Sn) → use for making containers

12. Zinc (Zn) → use in dry cells and roofing for houses

13. Mercury (Hg) → use in thermometers


Metalloids

Example:

1. Boron (B) → additive in fiberglass for insulation and structural materials

2. Silicon (Si) → use for making computer chips

3. Germanium (Ge) → use for making transistors

4. Arsenic (As)

5. Antimony (Sb)

6. Tellurium (Te)

7. Polonium (Po)


Non Metals

Example:

1. Chlorine (Cl) → use for killing germs in water supply

2. Argon (Ar) → use for lighting bulbs

3. Bromine (Br) → use in photography

4. Helium (He) → use to filling ballons

5. Carbon (C) → diamond and graphite use for jewelry

6. Hydrogen (H) → use for fuel

7. Iodine (I) → use for antiseptic

8. Neon (Ne) → used in electric signs and fluorescent lamps

9. Nitrogen (N) → liquid nitrogen use to refrigeration coolant

10. Oxygen (O) → gas for breathing

11. Phosphorus (P) → use in making safety matches

12. Sulphur (S) → manufacture of sulphuric acid

The Difference Between Metals and Non-metals

 

Metals

    • high melting point
    • most solid at room temperature, except mercury
    • metals can be bent and stretched (Malleable and ductile)
    • good conductors of electricity
    • good heat conductors
    • metals are shiny in appearance
    • metals are strong and hard

 

Non-metals

    • low melting point
    • may be solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature
    • non-metals are usually brittle and break easily when bent or stretched
    • usually do not conduct electricity except graphite
    • usually poor heat conductors
    • non-metals are usually dull in appearance except diamond
    • non-metals are usually weak and soft
B. Compound

A compound contains two or more elements chemically joined together

Example:

1. Water (H2O)

2. Carbon dioxide (CO2)

3. Acetic acid (CH3COOH)

4. Sulphuric acid (H2SO4)

5. Hydrochloric acid (HCl)

6. Ethanol (C2H5OH)

7. Ammonia (NH3)

8. Natrium chloride (NaCl)

C. Mixture

A mixture contains two or more different substances that are not chemically joined together. The differences substances in a mixture can be elements and/or compounds

A. Homogeneous Mixture

A homogeneous mixture is a mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout the mixture

All solutions would be considered homogeneous

Example:

    • Sugar solution
    • Salt solution
    • Tea solution
    • Coffee solution
    • Vinegar
    • Alcohol 70%
    • Steel
    • Brass
    • Air
    • Wine

B. Heterogeneous Mixture

(1) Colloids

Example:

    • Milk
    • Smoke
    • Cheese butter
    • Hair cream
    • Cloud
    • Ink

 

(2) Suspensions

Example:

    • Chalk dissolved in water
    • Sand dissolved in water
    • Sand and water
    • Oil and water
    • Muddy water
    • Italian salad dressing

 

Exercise

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