Third World countries often mistakenly decide to permit rapid industrialization. When this industrialization occurs, many new factories open, and workers get jobs. Unfortunately, many of these new jobs are not permanent. The leaders of an industry want their factories to be as productive as possible, and they will do anything to achieve that goal. Whenever they can, they take advantage of automation, which means that workers are replaced by a more efficient machine.___________________________________________.
The main information of the text tells us about _______.
(A) rapid economic growth in developing countries
(B) the importance of automation for Third World countries
(C) the advantage and disadvantage of industrialization
(D) the advantage of automation for leaders of industries
(E) automation which is the best way to get maximum profit
Which of the following sentences is the best concluding sentence for the text?
(A) Thus, industrialization can boost Third World countries’ economic growth.
(B) In short, many employees have the opportunity to get new jobs.
(C) Therefore, there is an increase in employees’ standard of living.
(D) To conclude, industrialists can better share their profit with employees.
(E) As a result, automation may increase the rate of unemployment.
In studying the phenomenon usually referred to as sleep, we are actually dealing with more than one phenomenon. In point of fact, we spend the night alternating between two different types of sleep, each with different brain mechanism and different purposes.
As a person falls asleep, his brain waves develop a slower and less regular pattern than in a waking state. This is called orthodox sleep. In this state the brain is apparently resting. Its blood supply is reduced, and its temperature falls slightly. Breathing and heart rate are regular. The muscles remain slightly tensed. After about an hour in this state, however, the brain waves begin to show a more active pattern again, even though the person is apparently asleep very deeply. This is called paradoxical sleep because it has much in common with being awake.
Paradoxical (active) sleep is marked by irregular breathing and heart rate, increased blood supply to the brain, and increased brain temperature. Most of the muscles are relaxed. There are various jerky movements of the body and face, including short burst of rapid eye movement, which indicate that we are dreaming. Thus, we spend the night alternating between these two vital ‘restoration jobs’: working on the brain and working on the body.
The two different types of sleep are characterized by different _______.
(A) lengths of sleep
(B) degrees of soundness
(C) sleep movements
(D) brain wave pattern
(E) eye movements
It seems that our brain gets some rest _______.
(A) after several hours of sleeping
(B) during the orthodox sleep
(C) before and after the orthodox sleep
(D) when we wake up from sleeping
(E) during the paradoxical sleep
The second stage of sleep is called paradoxical sleep because _______.
(A) it comes after the orthodox phase of sleeping
(B) we sleep but our muscles are tense
(C) it is totally different form orthodox sleep
(D) we only dream during this phase of sleeping
(E) the brain is active during this phase of sleeping
Orthodox sleep is characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT _______.
(A) regular heart rate and breathing
(B) lower brain temperature
(C) jerky body movements
(D) reduced supply of oxygen to the brain
(E) slightly tensed muscles
From the text we may conclude that while we are sleeping _______.
(A) our brain is restoring our physical and mental condition
(B) we can really be as active as when we are awake
(C) the tensed muscles are caused by the changing phase of sleeps
(D) orthodox sleep is more important than paradoxical sleep
(E) irregular heart rate while sleeping is due to bad dreams
Rainforests circle the globe for twenty degrees of latitude on both sides of the equator. In that ___(48)___ narrow band of the planet, more than half of all the species of plants and animals in the world make their home. Several hundred different ___(49)___ of trees may grow in a single acre, ___(50)___ just one of those trees may be the habitat for more than ten thousand kinds of spiders, ants, and other insects. Unfortunately, half of the world’s rainforests have already been destroyed, and at the current rate, another 25 percent will be lost by the next year. Every sixty seconds, one hundred acres of rainforest is being cleared. By the time you finish reading this passage, two hundred acres will be destroyed. When this happens, constant rains erode the former forest floor and the ecology of the region is altered forever. Thousands of spices of plants and animals are ___(51)___ to extinction and, since we are not able to ___(52)___ ramifications of this to a delicate global ecology, we do not know what we may be doing to the future of the human species as well.
Erika _______ on her report for three days in a row without much sleep. That’s why she looks so tired.
(B) is working
(C) has been working
(D) was working
(E) had been working
My daughter is interested in meeting famous people and _______ articles on them.
(B) to write
(C) be writing
(D) she is writing
(E) will be writing
May I borrow your calculator, please?’
‘Sorry, I can’t find it in my bag. I _______ at home.’
(A) had to leave it
(B) must have left it
(C) should leave it
(D) have to leave it
(E) should have left it
‘You look troubled. What’s the matter?’
‘The academic counselor _______ told me that unless I get at least B- for applied science, I won’t be able to graduate this year.’
(A) that I spoke
(B) which I spoke to
(C) I spoke to
(D) to who I spoke
(E) whom I spoke
If his father were not the president of this company, he would not be working here because _______.
(A) he is not that bright
(B) he wants to have his own business
(C) he has worked hard for it
(D) he’s worth getting the job
(E) he refused his father’s request
Encouraged by the good result of the math test, _______.
(A) there will be two class sessions for math each week
B) today’s math lesson has been cancelled
(C) the results of the other subjects are also considered
(D) the math subject is getting easier and easier
(E) my brother is now studying even harder than before
_______, the training program was able to achieve its goal.
(A) Since everything was well planned
(B) Although they made good arrangement
(C) Even if the stage was in good condition
(D) The fact that there was excellent event
(E) In case they did not come
Submitting his loan application form just three weeks before the bank was liquidated, Mr. Priyanto had to cancel his plan to buy modern machinery. This means that _______.
(A) Mr. Priyanto must have known that the bank was going to be liquidated
(B) Mr. Priyanto could not get a bank loan as the bank was liquidated
(C) They informed Mr Priyanto in advance that it was going to be liquidated
(D) Mr. Priyanto went ahead with his modernization plan for his factory
(E) the bank did not plan to extend a capital loan to Mr. Priyanto